The Basic Knowledge Of Lithium-Ion Batteries

We use the lithium-ion batteries each day. From cell phones and laptops to hybrids and electric cars, this technology is growing in popularity because of its light weight, high energy density, and rechargeable ability.


How do the lithium-ion batteries work?

Like other rechargeable battery, a lithium-ion battery is made up of one or more power-generating compartments called cells. Each cell has essentially three units: a positive electrode (connected to the battery’s positive or + terminal), a negative electrode (connected to the negative or − terminal), and a chemical called an electrolyte in between them. The positive electrode is typically made from a chemical compound called LiCoO2 or liLiFePO4 in newer batteries. The negative electrode is generally made from graphite and the electrolyte varies from one type of battery to another,but it is not important to understand how the battery works.
When charging the battery, the battery takes in and stores energy during this process. And some lithium ions which the positive electrode gives up move through the electrolyte to the negative, graphite electrode remain there. The lithium ions move back across the electrolyte to the positive electrode when the battery is discharging , producing the energy to powers the battery . In both cases, electrons flow in the opposite direction to the ions around the outer circuit.Through the electrolyte electrons do not flow : it’s effectively an insulating barrier, so far as electrons are concerned.

Energy density and power density

Energy density and power density are the two most common concepts associated with batteries. Energy density is the amount of energy the battery can store with respect to its mass which is measured in watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg). Power density is the amount of power that can be generated by the battery with respect to its mass which is measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg). Using a pool to draw a clearer picture. Energy density just like the size of the pool, while power density is comparable to draining the pool as quickly as possible.

5 Kwh battery packAdvantages of lithium-ion batteries

  • High energy density: The much higher power density offered by lithium ion batteries is a distinct advantage. They will help your solar system store more energy.
  • Self-discharge: The self discharge rate of Lithium-ion battery is much lower than that of other rechargeable batteries. In the first 4 hoursIt is typically around 5% after being charged but then falls to a figure of around 1 or 2% each month.
  • Low maintenance: Lithium-ion batteries don’t need periodic discharge , because there is no memory of this type batteries.
  • Cell voltage: The voltage of each lithium ion cell is higher, requiring less cells in many battery applications.The voltage produced by each lithium ion cell is about 3.6 volts. A single cell is all for smartphones ,this simplifies the power management for it.
  • Load characteristics: The load characteristics of a lithium ion battery are quite good. As the last charge is used,they still provide a constant 3.6 volts per cell before falling off.
  • No requirement for priming: When some battery receive their first charge,they need to be primed. One advantage of lithium-ion batteries is that it is no requirement for this.
lithium-ion batterY

Disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries

  • Protection required: Lithium -ion batteries are not as robust as some other rechargeable batteries. They cannot being over charged and discharged too far. In addition, they need to maintained the current within safe limits. So they need protection circuitry incorporated to ensure they are kept within their safe operating limits.
  • Ageing: All batteries suffer from ageing,so do lithium-ion batteries.But we can help increase their life. When a typical lithium-ion battery needs to be stored, it should be partially charged around 40% to 50% and kept in a cool storage area. Under these conditions will help increase the life.
  • Cost: The price is a major disadvantage of lithium-ion battery. Their manufacture cost are around 40% higher than other batteries. This is a major factor when customer considering their use form other items.


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